This X-ray photoelectron spectrometer uses the principles of X-ray spectroscopy to measure the elemental composition of materials.

X-ray spectroscopy is a technique that detects and measures photons, or particles of light, that have wavelengths in the X-ray portion of the electromagnetic spectrum. It’s used to help scientists understand the chemical and elemental properties of an object. There are several different X-ray spectroscopy methods that are used in many disciplines of science and technology, including archaeology, astronomy and engineering. These methods can be used independently or together to create a more complete picture of the material or object being analyzed. How X-ray spectroscopy works When an atom is unstable or is bombarded with high-energy…

There’s Something Hot Hidden Under East Antarctica

There’s something hot hidden under East Antarctica, and scientists aren’t sure precisely what it is — though they have a pretty good guess. East Antarctica is a craton, a big continent-size chunk of Earth’s crust. It’s solid, and thick. It’s not supposed to let heat through from inside the Earth. (That makes it different from the thinner crust of West Antarctica, where magma is, in some places, quite close to the surface.) That craton means that East Antarctica shouldn’t have much melted water at the bottom of its ice sheet. And…